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Population Balance and Age Structure

The number of people living in Germany – presently about 81 million – depends on three important demographic processes: births, deaths and the results of immigration and emigration. Until the early 1970s, there was a birth surplus in Germany, i.e. the number of births was higher than the number of deaths. Since this time, however, the number of deaths exceeds the number of births. The fact that the population of Germany could nonetheless grow until the year 2002 was due to the high rate of immigration. Between 2003 and 2010 the decline in immigrants could no longer compensate for the excess mortality rates and the population decreased in Germany. The high immigration rate since 2011 changed this trend and causes an increase in population again.

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© Federal Institute for Population Research - 2018